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A journey into Pip’s world of Great Expectations

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It’s a warm morning, the sky is cloudless and the marshes of the Hoo Peninsula, 40 kilometresdownriver from London, are thick with daisies and red clover. In the churchyard of St. Mary’s in the village of Lower Higham there is a scent of cut grass. The whole scene, in other words, is distinctly un-Dickensian.

But it is here, near the Thames estuary, that Charles Dickens’ 1861 novel Great Expectations opens: “Ours was the marsh country, down by the river, within, as the river wound, twenty miles of the sea.”

Egypt Bay on the Hoo Peninsula in England. Dickens began his novel in the marshes of the Hoo Peninsula, about 40 kilometres from London.
Egypt Bay on the Hoo Peninsula in England. Dickens began his novel in the marshes of the Hoo Peninsula, about 40 kilometres from London.  (TOM JAMIESON / The New York Times)

There’s no novel I love more, and I’ve come to know this peninsula well during the 15 years I’ve lived in London. There was a time, seven or eight years ago, when I would escape to this quiet landscape, weekend after weekend, as if looking for something I’d mislaid.

On this visit, having taken an early morning train to Lower Higham, a journey of no more than 80 minutes, my plan is to spend the day walking from St. Mary’s, across the marshes to an isolated inlet named Egypt Bay, before returning via a second church, St. James’, in the village of Cooling.

Both churches have been proposed as the setting for the opening scene of Great Expectations, when the young boy Pip, visiting the graves of his parents and his brothers — “five little stone lozenges, each about a foot and a half long” — encounters the convict Magwitch, who has escaped from a nearby prison ship. (“‘Hold your noise!’ cried a terrible voice, as a man started up from among the graves at the side of the church porch. ‘Keep still, you little devil, or I’ll cut your throat!’”)

I’m carrying my favourite gazetteer, discovered in a book store in nearby Rochester on a previous foray: Col. W. Laurence Gadd’s “The Great Expectations Country,” published in 1929 and long out of print. Gadd is forever “striking out,” in his rather upright way, but there’s a likable modesty to his guidance (“I make no claim to infallibility”) as we follow him from the Hoo Peninsula, via Rochester, to London, where the adult Pip is sent when he receives a fortune from an anonymous benefactor. But the colonel’s starting point, like the novel’s, is the marshes.

The Hoo Peninsula divides the estuary of the Thames from that of the smaller Medway 16 kilometres to the east. To get a sense of its shape, take a seat on the churchyard bench and rest your right foot on your left knee: the Thames follows the curve of your heel and sole; the Medway the bony top of your foot. Both rivers open to the North Sea beyond your toes. The marshes occupy most of the northwest of the peninsula, which is to say your heel.

A foot is apt for a place that offers such stimulating walking, but the terrain is not without its challenges. If you look at a UK Ordnance Survey map, you can see how wet it is: Not only bounded by the two rivers and their mud flats, it’s veined by hundreds of ditches, streams, dikes, fleets and runnels, most of which can only be crossed using infrequent footbridges.

If it is a formative realm for Pip, the peninsula can also be seen as central to Dickens’ own world — a rural counterpoint to London: at once his sanctuary and his inspiration. As a child, Dickens lived in the naval port of Chatham, on the Medway six kilometres to the southeast, and in later life, as a world-famous author, bought a home near Lower Higham, Gads Hill Place, where “Great Expectations” was written and from where he would take regular walks on the marshes. (Today the building forms part of a private school, though there are plans to open it to the public.)

St. Mary’s, three kilometres north, was his church, where his daughter Katey was wed in 1860. In “The Great Expectations Country,” Gadd maintains that the church in the novel must be this one, since its architecture matches Pip’s description.

“All the other churches in the peninsula,” he writes, “have square stone towers, but [St. Mary’s] has a quaint timber steeple, shingled with tiles. Pip saw this steeple under his feet when the convict tilted him backwards on the gravestone.”

St. Mary's Church in Lower Higham, England. The church is believed to be the setting for the opening scene of Great Expectations.
St. Mary’s Church in Lower Higham, England. The church is believed to be the setting for the opening scene of Great Expectations.  (TOM JAMIESON/The New York Times)

For Pip, the church is where life gives way to death, but also where the peopled world cedes to the marshes — “a dark flat wilderness beyond the churchyard, intersected with dikes and mounds and gates, with scattered cattle feeding on it.”

“The Great Expectations Country” in hand, I strike out.

Marshland is born of rivers: As silt is sluiced down from the land to the sea, the tides in turn lift it back onto the land. First there are the mud flats, covered daily by the tides. As silt accumulates, the mud flats rise until they stand clear of the sea for long enough to become colonized by salt-loving plants. Then they become salt marsh, the Thames estuary’s richest habitat. When the salt marsh is drained and walled off from the tide it becomes grassland.

In a field a kilometre north of St. Mary’s, I wait at a railway spur for a freight train to shunt slowly by. It’s bound for London, the driver yells from his window, carrying estuary sand from the Cliffe aggregate works.

Once the train has passed, I follow the footpath over the railway and through the works with its churning conveyor belts and towering sand dunes. In “Great Expectations,” the adult Pip remembers fondly the summer afternoons he spent with his beloved Uncle Joe, the blacksmith who is the closest thing he has to a father, lounging beside the Thames at “that old battery over yonder.” It is there, too, that Magwitch bids the boy to meet him, with a file and “wittles” (food), the day after their first encounter.

Close to the former site of the battery, fenced off, flooded, and ringed by brambles, you can see the monolithic, derelict Cliffe Fort, sitting on the peninsula’s heel like a wart. Built in 1870, less than 10 years after the publication of Great Expectations, to counter the threat of French invasion, it is one of the Thames’ oldest remaining defensive fortifications.

A narrow footpath runs along an embankment between it and the river’s exposed mud flats, which are littered with detritus washed down from the city — plastic bottles, wooden pallets, plastic ship’s fenders, deflated soccer-balls, shoes. The black hull-ribs of ships scuttled long ago reach out of the mud. Gulls squabble noisily.

It’s not a pretty place, or a friendly one, so it’s a relief when the footpath opens out onto the marshes. As the grinding and banging of the aggregate works are left behind, a cooling wind rises from the sea. Even in the sunshine, with the giant container ships plying the Thames, this is recognizably Pip’s marsh country: flat, treeless, glinting with ribbons of water — a halfway place that is marine as much as terrestrial.

The embankment follows the Thames’ high-water line and will take me all the way to Egypt Bay, with the river on my left and the marshes on my right. “If you like solitude, and fresh air, and open spaces,” Gadd writes, “the trip is worthwhile.”

The embankment was built in the 1880s to prevent the Thames from flooding the marshes during storms and high tides. It transformed life on the peninsula. As late as 1874, Her Majesty’s Inspector for Schools described the area as “low-lying, aguish, and unhealthy, where no one would live if they could help it.”

The “ague” — malaria — had been a peril of living here; the marshes, Pip tells Magwitch, are “dreadful aguish.” With the embankment, standing floodwater where malaria-carrying mosquitoes bred was prevented and the disease largely eradicated.

As the Thames widens toward the sea, the towering cranes of the London Gateway container terminal dominate the river’s far bank a mile north, but to the south the marshes are at their most exposed and expansive. Looking toward Northward Hill, three kilometresaway, I feel my city eyes widening, adjusting to the open space.

Environmentalist Wallace Stegner wrote in 1960 that we need “wild country available to us, even if we never do more than drive to its edge and look in.” It may be hard to think of this landscape so heavily shaped by humankind as wild, but to know that it is here, just an hour or two from London, still intractable and sparsely populated 180 years after Dickens — it’s a source of comfort.

“The distance from Cliffe Creek to Egypt Bay is about three miles,” Gadd announces. It takes him an hour, “as the way is for the most part on slippery mud.” The embankment path avoids the mud, but is more like 10 kilometres, and it’s past 4 p.m. by the time I reach Egypt Bay. I arrive sunburned and windblown, my lips taut and salty.

The Thames Estuary on the Hoo Peninsula in England. Charles Dickens began his novel Great Expectations in the marshes of the peninsula, about 40 kilometres from London.
The Thames Estuary on the Hoo Peninsula in England. Charles Dickens began his novel Great Expectations in the marshes of the peninsula, about 40 kilometres from London.  (TOM JAMIESON/The New York Times)

The provenance of the bay’s name is unclear, though it has been suggested it’s because a Phoenician coin was unearthed nearby. What is known is that this sandy inlet was an ancient landing place, and favoured by smugglers in the 19th century. Beyond the mud flats, Gadd says, is where the prison hulk was from which Magwitch escaped before apprehending Pip — “in the topographic sense,” at least, for the vessel once anchored here was not a prison hulk, the colonel concedes, but a coast guard lookout.

I rest on the seawall and when I stand, a group of swans rises from a nearby dike, passing over the marshes until they are no more than gleaming dashes against the dark woods of Northward Hill. Turning from the river, I follow them south across the marsh, locating the wooden footbridges that cross the drainage ditches, and finally heading west, until the square stone steeple of St James’ Church comes into view.

According to historian Edward Hasted, writing in the 1770s, Cooling was “an unfrequented place, the roads of which are deep and miry, and it is as unhealthy as it is unpleasant.” On this late summer’s afternoon the village has an air of tranquil prosperity, and is so still and unpeopled as to feel like a film set. I don’t see a soul.

“Close by the south porch,” Gadd writes of the church, “are the gravestones of Pip’s little brothers.” A meter in length and torpedo-shaped, the real gravestones — 13 in total — belong to two branches of the Comport family, victims of malaria in the late 18th century. In Dickens’ novel there are just five, but as his friend and biographer John Forster put it: “with the reserves always necessary in copying nature not to overstep her modesty by copying too closely, he makes the number that appalled little Pip not more than half the reality.” No reader would believe 13.

Gadd insists that the stones were imaginatively “imported” by Dickens to St Luke’s at Lower Higham, where my walk began. But for me it is St James’ because of their presence, that will always be where Pip met Magwitch on that “memorable raw afternoon towards evening.”

Even today, in the warm raking light, I suppress a small shudder. A place might inspire fiction, but fiction in turn can shade your experience of that place.

I remember my first reading of the novel, long before I set foot here. It was Pip who knew these “death-cold flats,” but that terrifying stranger who would transform his life — part magus, part witch — seemed to be the very marshes incarnate, a shackled golem formed of salt-mud and fog. (“Keep still, you little devil, or I’ll cut your throat!”)

Once I’ve written my name in the church’s visitor book, I return “The Great Expectations Country” to my backpack, and start the six-kilometre walk back to Lower Higham and my train to London.

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Travel & Escape

Why your hotel mattress feels like heaven (and how to bring that feeling home)

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(NC) Choosing the right mattress is a long-term investment in your health and well-being. To make a good choice for your home, take a cue from luxury hotel-room beds, which are designed to support the sound sleep of tens of thousands of guests, 365 nights a year.

“When we’re shopping for a mattress, we do lab testing, identify the best materials, bring in multiple mattress samples and have our associates test them,” explains David Rizzo, who works for Marriott International. “We ask for ratings on comfort level, firmness, body support and movement disruption. It takes 12 to 18 months just to research and select materials.”

Here, he shares his tips to pick the perfect mattress for your best sleep:

Understand your needs. People have different food and exercise preferences, as well as different sleep cycles. So, it’s no surprise that everyone has unique mattress preferences. Not sure whether a firm or a soft mattress is better? Rizzo says the best gauge is to ask yourself, “Do I wake up with aches and pains?” If the answer is no, you’re golden.

Foam versus spring. All mattresses have a core that is made up foam or innersprings or a combination of the two. Today’s foam-core mattresses contain memory foam — a material engineered by NASA to keep astronauts comfortable in their seats. It’s special because it retains or “remembers” its shape, yielding to pressure from the sleeper’s body, then bouncing back once the pressure is removed.

An innerspring mattress has an encased array of springs with individual coils that are connected by a single helical wire. This wire creates continuous movement across the coil that minimizes disruption if the mattress is disturbed, such as by a restless sleeper. According to Rizzo, the innerspring is “bouncier.”

Temperature preference. Consider how warm or cool you like to sleep, and factor in the construction of the mattress to find one with a temperature that suits you. The air space engineered into an innerspring mattress promotes ventilation, which some people find keeps them pleasantly cool. To accomplish the same purpose with a foam mattress (or the foam layer of an innerspring) it may be infused with metal, usually silver or copper, to help dissipate heat and humidity.

Need to test out the right mattress for your needs? Find the right fit during your next trip by booking your stay at marriott.com.

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Travel & Escape

How to make the most of summer travel

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(NC) One of the best parts of our short Canadian summers is the opportunity to enjoy them a little bit extra on long weekends. If you need ideas, check out these creative things to do whether you decide to stay in town or go away.

Do a dinner crawl. Pub crawls are fun for couples, friends and also families with older kids. For an exciting twist that stretches your dollars and lets you taste food from several spots before you get too full, try a dinner crawl. Eat apps at one restaurant, mains at another and dessert at another.

Go on a mini getaway. You don’t need to go very far to enjoy a vacation – exploring a Canadian city over a summer weekend is great way to treat yourself to a holiday. Whether it’s checking out the museums in Toronto or the parks in Vancouver, there’s something for everyone. For upgraded benefits, special experiences and the best rates guaranteed, join Marriott Bonvoy and book direct on Marriott.com.

Host a potluck. Perfect whether you’re staying at home or going to your cottage, gather friends and family together for some food and fun. A potluck is an easy and affordable way to host a big get-together and lets everyone try something new and swap recipes. Make the festivities extra special with a fireworks potluck, too – ask everyone to bring some fireworks or sparklers and put on a light show. Just be sure to follow local regulations for consumer fireworks.

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Lottoland: Here’s why Canadians love it!

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Lotteries have been in existence for many centuries now and it’s an open secret that most people enjoy playing a good lottery.

Asides from gauging your own luck, the thrill of playing, the anticipation of the results and the big wins every now and then is something most people look forward to. Since 1982, the lottery has been in Canada, but now there is a way to play both the Lotto and other international lotteries from Canada, all from the comfort of your home.

With Lottoland, all you need to do is register and get access to numerous international lotteries right from their website. The easy-to-use interface has all the information you need, and great amount of care has been taken to ensure that the online experience is similar—and even better—than if players were to visit each location personally.

The Powerball and Mega Millions lotteries are hitting record highs with their prize money, in what the organizers claim to be the largest jackpot in the history of the world. However, the U.S. has gambling laws that are state controlled and buying your ticket through an online broker can be considered gambling.

“No one except the lottery or their licensed retailers can sell a lottery ticket. No one. Not even us. No one. No, not even that website. Or that one,” Powerball’s website says.

Therefore, to stand a chance to win the $1.5 billion-dollar lottery jackpot it means you have to purchase your lottery tickets directly from a licensed retailer such as Lottoland.

Since 2013, Lottoland has been operating in Canada, rapidly growing in popularity amongst Canadians. Due to its easy of use and instant access to lotteries that were previously considered inaccessible—as Canadians had to travel all the way to the U.S. to purchase tickets in the past—Lottoland has attracted lots of visitors.

Currently, there about 8-million players on Lottoland, a figure that points to the reliability of the website.

One of the core values of Lottoland is transparency and that’s why a quick search on the website would show you a list of all of their winners. Recently, a Lottoland customer was awarded a world-record fee of $137 million CND.

Also, due to the incredibly slim chances of winning the grand prize not everyone would take home mega-dollar winnings, but there are substantial winnings every day.

Securing your information online is usually one important factor when registering on any platform and as the site explains, “Lottoland works very hard to verify your information.”

The site has a multi-verification process that will ensure that you confirm your identity and age before giving you a pay-out. However, in the rare case that a player has immediate luck and wins a lottery before completing the verification process, Lottoland will hold on to the winnings until they complete your verification.

While this might seem like a tedious process, it is very important as these safety features would ensure that your information wasn’t stolen and ultimately your winning routed to another account.

Lottoland is licensed with the National Supervisory Bodies For Lotteries in several countries such as the United Kingdom, Italy, Sweden, Ireland and Australia—where it is called a wagering license. Typically, most gaming companies don’t establish insurance companies as it entails that their activities have to be transparent and the must be highly reputable in the industry.

Nonetheless, Lottoland has no issues meeting up to these standards as they have established themselves as the only gaming sector company who has its own insurance company—an added advantage for new and existing users.

Lotteries aren’t the only games Canadians enjoy playing and Lottoland recognizes this by providing players with other types of gaming. As an industry leader, video designers of online games often make them their first choice when it comes to publishing their works.

Online games such as slots, blackjack, video poker, baccarat, keno, scratchoffs, roulette and many others are always on offer at the Lottoland Casino. There’s also the option of playing with a live dealer and a total of over 100 games.

Lottoland has received numerous rave reviews from its growing list of satisfied customer and their responsive customer service agents are always available to answer any questions users may have, along with solving challenges they may have encountered.

More and more Canadians are trooping to Lottoland in droves due to the unique experience of going to a casino without having to leave the comfort of their homes.

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