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Greener coffee pods? Bacteria help turn food waste into compostable plastic

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What if plastic were made from waste like banana peels, coffee grounds and cardboard takeout containers instead of petroleum? And what if, after use, that plastic decomposed like the biological materials it was made from?

Toronto-based Genecis, a cleantech startup,  is trying to make that dream of greener plastic a reality, and to make it cheap enough to use in everyday throwaway items like coffee pods and other food packaging.

Genecis harnesses bacteria to turn kitchen waste into compostable, biocompatible plastics called PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates).

The plastic-making bacteria eat waste that has been pre-processed by other bacteria into molecular bite-sized pieces. And, like us, if they’re well fed, they pack on some extra weight — strangely enough, as plastic.

“It’s like the fat of the bacteria,” explains Luna Yu, the company’s 24-year-old CEO.

The plastic granules are later extracted from the bacteria and turned into pellets that can be sold and moulded into plastic products.

The company has signed agreements with Ontario firms that plan to use it to make compostable coffee pods and the plastic that’s printed out by 3D printers.

PHA is already on the market. Because it’s biocompatible and biodegradable, it’s used in lots of medical applications ranging from heart valves to dissolving sutures.

Cheaper and greener

But because it’s made from food crops such as sugar cane, corn and canola, it’s quite expensive — triple or quadruple the price of petroplastics like PET or polypropylene that are typically used in the coffee pods, drink bottles or yogurt containers we buy.

In this bioreactor at Genecis’s lab, bacteria are chowing down on processed food waste and storing the extra energy as plastic instead of fat. (Craig Chivers/CBC)

Yu hopes to reduce the cost of PHA production by at least 40 per cent by using waste as a raw material, making it economically viable for everyday uses like food packaging.

There are other good reasons to do that.

While food crops are renewable resources, agriculture is estimated to be responsible for one-third of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions.

We believe … there’s no such thing as waste. Waste is a product looking for an opportunity.— Atul Bali, Competitive Green Technologies

On the other end of the equation, the kitchen waste we throw out releases carbon dioxide or methane — a greenhouse gas 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide — as it decomposes. Because of that, landfills account for 20 per cent of Canada’s emissions of methane. Many municipalities are trying to curb emissions to composting or anaerobic digestion facilities where they can be captured.

David Grewell, a professor at North Dakota State University and director of the Center for Bioplastics and Biocomposites, said turning organic waste into plastic could also lock up or “sequester” those emissions and make waste products more valuable and therefore less likely to end up in a landfill.

“It’s going to open up markets and have a positive impact all around,” he said.

Genecis isn’t the only company trying to make PHAs from waste. Mango Materials in California is using methane from organic waste to make PHAs for plastic bottle caps and biopolyester for clothing. And researchers from AnoxKaldnes in Sweden have been testing a process to make them from sewage sludge.

But all are at early stages, and scaling up is the next challenge.

Right now, at an aging lab that it rents on the University of Toronto campus, Genecis can produce about half a kilogram of PHA per week from about 75 kilograms of food waste collected from the cafeteria of a nearby Campbell’s Soup factory.

Scaling up

But very soon, it’s planning to build a demonstration plant that can process three tonnes of organic waste into up to 70 kilograms of PHA per week with new investment that will allow it to buy more efficient equipment.

In September, Yu was named one of six finalists in the MaRS Women in Cleantech Challenge sponsored by Natural Resources Canada, earning $300,000 in support from MaRS, a Toronto-based tech incubator, along with an annual $115,000 stipend for 2.5 years and the opportunity to work with federal labs to develop her company’s technology.

All six finalists will compete for the grand prize, a $1 million investment.

The bacteria produce granules of a plastic called PHA. It’s extracted and processed into pellets that can be sold and turned into plastic products. (Craig Chivers/CBC)

Genecis’s aging lab is a space worthy of a scrappy startup, with yellow paint peeling from its walls and antique-looking wooden lab benches. It smells like a washroom that needs cleaning, from a combination of food waste and bacteria.

“It’s completely harmless to humans,” Yu said of the smell. She admits neighbouring startups have complained, but things are better now that the company has upgraded its ventilation systems.

“Sometimes we give them chocolates as a sort of thank you for dealing with our smell.”

It’s most pungent in the room where staff don protective yellow coats and grind the food waste into a slurry that can be filtered into a liquid thin enough for bacteria to sip from.

There’s one tank of bacteria that predigest the food waste into bite-sized molecules. Those molecules get run through another filter and are fed to “PHA” bacteria in another cylindrical glass tank. They spend four to 24 hours fattening themselves up before they’re removed from the bioreactor tank and the PHA is extracted with chemicals such as bleach.

McDonalds, PC coffee pods

Once the company is making PHA on a large enough scale, the material will be incorporated into a compostable resin that’s used by a manufacturer called Club Coffee to make coffee pods that are certified compostable for brands like McDonald’s and President’s Choice.

PHA is already one of the plastics in McDonald’s and President’s Choice compostable coffee pods. It’s sourced overseas, but PHA from Genecis’s could soon be incorporated. (University of Guelph)

The resin is made by Competitive Green Technologies, based in Leamington, Ont. It’s a combination of coffee bean skins, compostable petroleum-based plastics, and bioplastics, including PHA, said Atul Bali, the company’s CEO.

The company imports its PHA from overseas. But a few months ago, Bali was contacted by Yu who wondered if they would be interested in collaborating.

Bali, who said his company’s objective is to reduce dependance on fossil fuels and be more environmentally friendly, is keen about the idea of a Canadian supplier.

“I’m pretty excited about what Genecis is doing,” said Bali, who says the two companies have similar values. “We believe … there’s no such thing as waste. Waste is a product looking for an opportunity.”

He said he’s also keen to help move Canadian biotechnology forward by finding a home for Genecis’s plastic as soon as it’s in production.

So far, he has provided Genecis with the standards the PHA needs to meet in order to be compatible with his resin. He figures the company is about a year away from being able to provide it.

Not accepted for municipal composting

There are still other challenges.

A big one is that compostable plastics — including coffee pods already on the market — aren’t accepted in municipal organic waste diversion programs in Canada, although some are going through tests in places like Toronto.

Composting facilities in Canada typically screen out all plastic, including compostable coffee pods. (Randy McAndrew/CBC)

Most plastics aren’t compostable, and most of what ends up in the green bin is “contamination” — so plastics are typically screened out by machines.

That’s the case in the Moncton, N.B., where waste diversion co-ordinator Gena Alderson said compostable plastics would be difficult to recover in the local composting plant.

Still, she thinks compostable options are better than recyclable for things like coffee pods as they’re more likely to break down even if they don’t make it to a composting facility.

But reusable options are always better, she added.

“I think the best thing is to avoid single use whenever we can.”

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The ‘Maple Majestic’ wants to be Canada’s homegrown Tesla

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Look out Tesla, Canada has a homegrown electric sedan on the way. Well, that’s if AK International Motor Corporation can drum up enough investment to make its EV a reality. Dubbed the “Maple Majestic,” the vehicle is a battery-electric designed to “excel in extreme climate performance without adversely affecting the climate, as befits a vehicle from Canada,” according to its website.

What’s in a name? — The company says the maple leaf is a “symbol of Canada’s warmth and friendliness towards all cultures,” while “majestic” refers to the country’s “status as a Constitutional Monarchy.”

That patriotism carries over into Maple Majestic’s parent company’s lofty goals. AK Motor founder Arkadiusz Kaminski says he wants the company, which he founded in 2012, to become “Canada’s first multi-brand automotive OEM,” and that the “Maple Majestic is intended to be Canada’s flagship brand of automobiles on the world stage.”

Partnerships are key — “We acknowledge that the best chance for the Maple Majestic brand to succeed, lies in continuing to build the relationship with Canada’s parts suppliers and technological innovators, whether they be academic institutions, corporations, or individual inventors,” the company explains. “We are currently seeking partners in automotive engineering, parts manufacturing, automotive assembly, electric propulsion technology, battery technology, autonomous technology, and hybrid power generation technology.”

In other words, don’t expect to be able to buy a Maple Majestic any time soon… and don’t expect to pour over 0-60 mph times, power output, range, or other key stats, because those don’t currently exist. For now, all we have are pictures and a short video clip. But at least those are arresting.

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PE-backed Quorum Software to merge with Canadian energy tech firm

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Houston-based energy technology company Quorum Software will merge with a Canadian tech firm to bolster its presence in oil and gas services.

Quorum announced Feb. 15 it plans to merge with Calgary, Alberta-based Aucerna, a global provider of planning, execution and reserves software for the energy sector. The combined firm will operate under the Quorum Software brand.

Gene Austin, CEO of Quorum Software, will continue in his capacity as chief executive of the combined firm. Austin, former CEO of Austin-based marketing tech firm Bazaarvoice Inc., became CEO of Quorum in December 2018.

Aucerna co-founder and CEO Wayne Sim will be appointed to the Quorum Software board of directors. Both companies are backed by San Francisco- and Chicago-based private equity firm Thoma Bravo.

“Over the last 20 years, Quorum has become the leading innovator of software deployed by North American energy companies,” said Austin. “Today, Quorum is expanding the scope of our technology and expertise to all energy-producing regions of the globe. Customers everywhere will have access to a cloud technology ecosystem that connects decision-ready data from operations to the boardroom.”

In addition to the merger announcement, Quorum Software announced it had entered into an agreement with Finnish IT firm TietoEvry to purchase TietoEvry’s entire oil and gas business. The agreement, which includes hydrocarbon management, personnel and material logistics software and related services, is valued at 155 million euros, or $188 million, according to a statement from TietoEvry.

“Our three organizations complement each other — from the software that our great people design to the energy markets where we operate,” said Sim. “Our new company will be able to deliver value to our stakeholders, while accelerating the growth of our combined business and the energy industry’s software transformation.”

The combined company will serve over 1,800 energy companies in 55 countries, according to the announcement. With its headquarters in Houston, Quorum will continue to have a significant presence in Calgary and in Norway, the headquarters for TietoEvry’s oil and gas software business. Quorum will have other offices throughout North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East.

As of Sept. 30, 2020, private equity firm Thoma Bravo had more than $73 billion in assets under management. In late December 2020, Thoma Bravo agreed to acquire Richardson, Texas-based tech firm RealPage in a roughly $10 billion acquisition.

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Piece of Kitchener technology lands on Mars on Perseverance rover

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KITCHENER — A piece of Kitchener technology has landed on Mars, thanks to NASA’s Perseverance rover.

The rover settled on the planet’s surface on Thursday afternoon. It’s been travelling through space since it was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. in July.

“The whole idea of being on a device that we’re sending to another plant with the express mission of looking for traces of past life, it’s pretty mind boggling actually,” said Rafal Pawluczyk, chief technical officer for FiberTech Optica.

The Kitchener-based company made fibre optic cables for the rover’s SuperCam that will examine samples with a camera, laser and spectrometers.

“The cables that we built take the light from that multiplexer and deliver it to each spectrograph,” Pawluczyk said.

The cables connect a device on the rover to the SuperCam, which will be used to examine rock and soil samples, to spectrometers. They’ll relay information from one device to another.

The project started four years ago with a connection to Los Alamos National Lab, where the instruments connected to the cables were developed.

“We could actually demonstrate we can design something that will meet their really hard engineering requirements,” Pawluczyk said.

The Jezero Crater is where the Perseverance rover, with FiberTech Optica’s technology onboard, landed Thursday. Scientists believe it was once flooded with water and is the best bet for finding any evidence of life. FiberTech’s cables will help that in that search.

Ioannis Haranas, an astrophysicist and professor at Wilfrid Laurier University, said the rover isn’t looking for “green men.”

“They’re looking for microbial, single-cell life, any type of fossils and stuff like that,” Haranas said. “That’s why they chose a special landing site. This could be very fertile land for that.”

“It’s very ambitious,” said Ralf Gellert, a physics professor at the University of Guelph.

Gellert helped with previous rover missions and said it’s the first time a Mars rover has landed without a piece of Guelph technology on it. While he’s not part of Perseverance’s mission, he said the possibilities are exciting.

“Every new landing site is a new piece of the puzzle that you can put together with the new results that we have from the other landing sites,” he said.

“It’s scientifically very interesting because, even though we don’t have an instrument on that rover, we can compare what the new rover Perseverance finds at this new landing site,” he said.

Now that Perseverance has landed on Mars, FiberTech is looking ahead to its next possible mission into space.

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