Connect with us

Health

Artist Leonardo da Vinci likely had an ‘advantageous’ eye disorder

Published

on

[ad_1]

This is an excerpt from Second Opinion, a weekly roundup of eclectic and under-the-radar health and medical science news emailed to subscribers every Saturday morning. If you haven’t subscribed yet, you can do that by clicking here.


It’s perhaps the most famous painting in the world — Leonardo da Vinci’s the Mona Lisa.

We’ll never know what da Vinci was thinking when he painted the woman with the enigmatic smile. But new research offers some clues into what he might have been seeing.

Based on da Vinci’s work, there is evidence that the artist had strabismus — a condition that affects about three percent of the population and is usually detected at birth. One eye is straight, while the other eye can drift. In da Vinci’s case, his strabismus was thought to be extropic, meaning it was intermittent.

The findings were published this week in the journal JAMA Ophthalmology by professor Christopher Tyler from the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute in San Francisco. To prove his hypothesis, Tyler had to do some artistic sleuthing because there are few validated portraits of the artist.

By measuring the iris and pupil boundaries, researcher Christopher Tyler believes the painter had Strabismus, a misalignment of the eyes ((Courtesy of Christopher W. Tyler/American Medical Association) )

Tyler based his conclusions on six images — two sculptures, two oil paintings, and two drawings done by either da Vinci or his first mentor, Andrea del Verrochio. All of these works are thought to contain elements of da Vinci’s face because he believed artists reflected their own appearance in their work.

Da Vinci once wrote that “the soul guides the painter’s arm and makes him reproduce himself, since it appears to the soul that this is the best way to represent a human being.” By measuring the eyes, pupils, irises, and eyelids in each of these works, Tyler discovered that there was a misalignment of about 10.3 degrees between the two eyes — possible evidence of strabismus.

Tyler concluded that in Virtuvian Man, one of da Vinci’s most famous works, the artist was aware of his own condition. “In that case he draws the pupils different sizes,” said Tyler. “He’s using it as an artistic way of giving you the sense that one eye is seeing more clearly than the other.”

‘Different vision’

But how did strabismus affect da Vinci’s overall work? Tyler said that when both our eyes are working correctly we see the world in three dimensions. When one eye strays, the brain compensates by forcing the good eye to work harder in two dimensions. And that could give some artists a unique edge.

The famous Mona Lisa hangs in the Louvre Museum in Paris. New research indicates its painter may have had a vision disorder. (Jean-Pierre Muller/AFP/Getty Images)

“Some forms of strabismus are thought to facilitate artistic work by suppressing the deviating eye, which creates two-dimensional monocular vision advantageous to painting and drawing,” Tyler said. In da Vinci’s case, Tyler believes he painted in a way that masked the strabismus. “In the Mona Lisa, he’s famous for using 30 layers of micro-thin paint to capture the three dimensional modelling of the face.”

Leonardo da Vinci wasn’t the only artist believed to have had strabismus. Degas, Picasso, and Rembrandt were thought to have the condition based on the eye alignment in their self-portraits. Strabismus is treatable, either through surgery or vision therapy.

Lisa Christian, a professor of Optometry and Vision Science at the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Ont., said the findings provide insight into how people live with strabismus. “When you find people that have a different vision than what you have, it’s hard to relate to them. This is kind of a glimpse into how people with this condition see the world.”

Tyler said it’s another fascinating detail in the amazing life of Leonardo da Vinci. “He’s such a universal intellect. The range and scope of what he explored was just astounding. And this just adds to that story.”


To read the entire Second Opinion newsletter every Saturday morning, please subscribe.

[ad_2]

Source link

قالب وردپرس

Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Health

Post-vaccine surge? Michigan’s spring coronavirus case spike close to previous year’s autumn high

Published

on

By

(Natural News) The spike in new Wuhan coronavirus infections recorded in Michigan over the spring is similar to a spike seen during the 2020 fall season. According to a Wall Street Journal analysis, the state’s daily coronavirus case count averaged more than 7,000 for almost two weeks – before taking a slight dip to 6,891 on April 20. This echoed similar figures back in November and December 2020, which saw sharp rises in infections for those two months before plunging.

Back in autumn of last year, Michigan averaged more than 7,000 cases per day for a span of 10 days. New infections dropped slightly, then briefly spiked as the December holidays approached. It then fell to the low 1,000s for the succeeding two months – until ascending again in March.

According to University of Michigan internal medicine professor Dr. Vikas Parekh, the sudden increase in new infections could be attributed to several factors. Among the factors he cited was re-openings, which increased people’s interactions and mobility. Parekh said the loosened restrictions contributed to the spread of the highly contagious U.K. B117 variant.

“As the B117 variant spreads nationally, we will likely see other stats [with] their own surges – although I hope none are as bad as Michigan,” the professor remarked. He continued: “The milestone just tells us we are not yet in the clear, especially as we still have large portions of our population who are not vaccinated yet.”

Parekh also expressed optimism over the lower daily caseloads the Great Lakes State reported. He said he believes both cases and hospitalizations have plateaued and will likely decline soon. The professor commented: “[COVID-19] positivity has been declining now for one week, which is usually a leading indicator of case decline.”

Meanwhile, the state cited younger populations and youth sports, such as basketball, wrestling and hockey, to increase new COVID-19 infections. Because of this, Gov. Gretchen Whitmer called to suspend youth sports and indoor dining in the state. She also exhorted high schools to conduct remote class sessions for two weeks to curb the spread of the pathogen.

Michigan still experienced the spike in cases despite having one of the highest vaccination rates in the country

During the opening stages of the U.S.’s immunization drive against COVID-19, Michigan boasted of having one of the highest vaccination rates nationwide. A report by Bridge Michigan even noted the initial “frenzy for vaccines” that “far exceeded the state’s limited supply.” But things have appeared to turn around for Michigan, as it now struggles to reach the 70 percent vaccination rate needed for herd immunity.

Continue Reading

Health

Scottish mom’s legs turn into a pair of “giant blisters” after first dose of AstraZeneca’s coronavirus vaccine

Published

on

By

(Natural News) Sarah Beuckmann of Glasgow, Scotland, felt a tingling sensation in her legs and noticed a rash flaring up around her ankles a week after getting her first dose of AstraZeneca’s coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine on March 18.

She also had flu-like symptoms right after the vaccination.

Beuckmann called her doctor to arrange an appointment the morning she noticed the rash, but by the afternoon her skin was already breaking out into blood-filled blisters. Blisters also appeared on her legs, hands, face, arms and bottom.

“I ended up asking my husband to take me to A&E,” said Beuckmann, referring to “accident and emergency,” the equivalent of an emergency room (ER). “When I got there, my heart rate was sitting at 160bpm, which they were very concerned about. I got put on an ECG machine.”

Doctors determine AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine triggers the rash

Medics carried out tests for HIV, herpes and other skin conditions to work out what triggered the rash, but all results came back negative. Doctors finally determined that the vaccine caused her rare reaction after carrying out two biopsies.

“Once they found that it was a reaction to the vaccine, they put me on steroids and that really seems to be helping my progress,” said Beuckmann. She had been advised by her doctor not to get the second dose of AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine because of her reaction.

Beuckmann spent 16 days at Queen Elizabeth University Hospital. She was discharged to recover at home. The 34-year-old mother of one is currently wheelchair-bound due to the bandages on her legs and blisters on the soles of her feet. She may need physiotherapy to help strengthen her leg muscles.

“They are starting to heal and they’re looking a lot better than they were but as the blisters started to get worse, they all sort of merged together,” she said. “I didn’t know what was going on.”

With the blisters merging, her legs have looked like a pair of “giant blisters.” Beuckmann admitted that at one point she feared her legs might have to be amputated.

Dermatologist agrees COVID-19 vaccine causes the blisters

Dr. Emma Wedgeworth, a consultant dermatologist and spokeswoman at the British Skin Foundation, agreed that Beuckmann had likely suffered a reaction to the vaccine.

“Vaccines are designed to activate the immune system. Occasionally people will have quite dramatic activation of their immune systems which, as happened in this case, can manifest in their skin” Wedgeworth told MailOnline. “This poor lady had a very severe reaction, which thankfully is extremely rare.”

It is not clear why Beuckmann, who works in retail, was invited for a vaccine. Scotland’s vaccine rollout was focused on people over the age of 50 when she got vaccinated, although vaccines are available to those who are considered at risk from the virus, or live with someone considered vulnerable.

At least 20 million Briton have had AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine, which drug regulators say causes a rash in one percent of cases. They say rashes caused by the jab tend to go away within a week.

Continue Reading

Health

Trojan labs? Chinese biotech company offers to build COVID testing labs in six states

Published

on

By

In 2012, BGI acquired Complete Genomics, a DNA sequencing company and equipment maker. The funds for the $117.6 million purchase were raised from Chinese venture capitals. The company has expanded its footprint globally. According to its website, BGI conducts business in more than 100 countries and areas and has 11 offices and labs in the U.S.

People are concerned about China’s access to American DNA data

Some said that with Complete Genomics providing an American base, BGI would have access to more DNA samples from Americans, helping it compile a huge database of genetic information. Some also worried about the protection of the genetic information’s privacy.

According to a 2019 report from the U.S.–China Economic and Security Review Commission (USCC), BGI “has formed numerous partnerships with U.S. healthcare providers and research organizations to provide large-scale genetic sequencing to support medical research efforts,”

There are three main reasons why many people in the biotech community and government have expressed concerns about China’s access to American DNA data.

In the “60 Minutes” interview, Evanina discussed the very likely scenario in which Chinese companies would be able to micro-target American individuals and offer customized preventative solutions based on their DNA.

Evanina asked: “Do we want to have another nation systematically eliminate our healthcare services? Are we okay with that as a nation?”

The second concern is that China may use DNA to track and attack American individuals. As the USCC report states: “China could target vulnerabilities in specific individuals brought to light by genomic data or health records. Individuals targeted in such attacks would likely be strategically identified persons, such as diplomats, politicians, high-ranking federal officials or military leadership.”

The third concern is that China may devise bioweapons to target non-Asians. Steven Mosher, president of the Population Research Institute, discussed it in his article “What Will China Do With Your DNA?” published by The Epoch Times in March 2019.

He wrote: “We know that the Asian genome is genetically distinct from the Caucasian and African in many ways. … Would it be possible to bioengineer a very virulent version of, say, smallpox, that was easily transmitted, fatal to other races, but to which the Chinese enjoyed a natural immunity? … Given our present ability to manipulate genomes, if such a bio-weapon can be imagined, it can probably – given enough time and resources – be realized.”

An article from Technocracy said: “China’s aggressive collection of American DNA should be doubly alarming because it can only spell one ultimate outcome: biowarfare. That is, genetically engineering viruses or other diseases that will be selectively harmful to U.S. populations.”

Continue Reading

Chat

Trending